XZERES 442SR Wind Turbine Vulnerability
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Independent researcher Maxim Rupp has identified a cross-site request forgery (CSRF) vulnerability in XZERES’s 442SR turbine generator operating system (OS). XZERES has produced a patch that mitigates this vulnerability.
This vulnerability could be exploited remotely.
The following XZERES product is affected:
- 442SR Wind Turbine.
Successful exploitation of this vulnerability allows the username password to be retrieved from the browser and will allow the default user password to be changed. This exploit can cause a loss of power for all attached systems.
Impact to individual organizations depends on many factors that are unique to each organization. NCCIC/ICS-CERT recommends that organizations evaluate the impact of this vulnerability based on their operational environment, architecture, and product implementation.
XZERES is a US-based energy company that maintains offices in several countries around the world, including the US, UK, Italy, Japan, Caribbean, Vietnam, Philippines, and Myanmar.
The affected product, 442SR Wind Turbine, has a web-based interface system. According to XZERES, the 442SR is deployed across the Energy sector. XZERES estimates that this product is used worldwide.
CROSS-SITE REQUEST FORGERYa
The 442SR OS recognizes both the POST and GET methods for data input. By using the GET method, an attacker may retrieve the username password from the browser and will allow the default user password to be changed. The default user has admin rights to the entire system.
This vulnerability could be exploited remotely.
EXISTENCE OF EXPLOIT
No known public exploits specifically target this vulnerability.
Crafting a working exploit for this vulnerability would be easy. There is no public exploit for this exact vulnerability. However, code exists online that can be easily modified to initiate a CSRF with this vulnerability.
XZERES has developed a manually deployable patch that mitigates this vulnerability.
Contact XZERES Service Team at 1-877-404-9438 (option 4) for instructions and support implementing the patch.
ICS-CERT encourages asset owners to take additional defensive measures to protect against this and other cybersecurity risks.
- Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems, and ensure that they are not accessible from the Internet.
- Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and isolate them from the business network.
- When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), recognizing that VPNs may have vulnerabilities and should be updated to the most current version available. Also recognize that VPN is only as secure as the connected devices.
ICS-CERT also provides a section for control systems security recommended practices on the ICS-CERT web page at: http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/content/recommended-practices. Several recommended practices are available for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies. ICS-CERT reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.
Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available in the ICS‑CERT Technical Information Paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B--Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies, that is available for download from the ICS-CERT web site (http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/).
Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their established internal procedures and report their findings to ICS-CERT for tracking and correlation against other incidents.
- a. CWE-352 Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF), http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/352.html, web site last accessed March 17, 2015.
- b. NVD, http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2015-0985, NIST uses this advisory to create the CVE web site report. This web site will be active sometime after publication of this advisory.
- c. CVSS Calculator, http://nvd.nist.gov/cvss.cfm?version=2&vector=AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C, web site last accessed March 17, 2015.
For any questions related to this report, please contact ICS-CERT at:
Toll Free: 1-877-776-7585
International Callers: (208) 526-0900
For industrial control systems security information and incident reporting: http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov
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