Yokogawa HART Device DTM Vulnerability
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Alexander Bolshev of Digital Security has identified an improper input vulnerability in the CodeWrights GmbH HART Device Type Manager (DTM) library utilized in Yokogawa’s HART Device DTM. CodeWrights GmbH has addressed the vulnerability with a new library, which both companies have begun to integrate.
The Yokogawa HART Device DTM used by the following devices is impacted:
- ADMAG AE Series Magnetic Flowmeters (AE/AE14) Rev.1 & 2,
- ADMAG SE Series Magnetic Flowmeters (SE/SE14) Rev.1 & 2,
- AM11 Magnetic Flowmeter Remote Converter Rev.1,
- AXFA11 Magnetic Flowmeter Remote Converter Rev.1,
- ADMAG AXF Series Magnetic Flowmeters (AXF/AXFA14) Rev.1,
- ADMAG AXR Two-wire Magnetic Flowmeters Rev.1 & 2,
- digitalYEWFLO Vortex Flowmeter Rev.1, 2, 3, & 4,
- Dpharp EJA /EJA-A Series Pressure Transmitters/Differential PressureTransmitters Rev.1, 2, & 3,
- Dpharp EJX Series Pressure Transmitters/Differential PressureTransmitters Rev.1, 2, & 3,
- EJX Multivariable Transmitters（EJX910A/EJX930A) Rev.1 & 2,
- Rotameter Rev.1,
- Coriolis Mass Flowmeters- ROTAMASS 3-Series(RCCT3x/RCCF31) Rev.1, 2, & 3,
- Coriolis Mass Flowmeters(CF11) Rev.1,
- Differential Pressure Transmitters Rev.1,
- YEWFLO Vortex Flowmeter Rev.1 & 2,
- YT200 Temperature Transmitters Rev.1,
- YTA110/YTA310/YTA320 Temperature Transmitters Rev.1, 2, & 3,
- YTA70 Temperature Transmitters Rev.1,
- AV550G Rev.1,
- DO202 Rev.1,
- ISC202 Rev.1,
- ISC450 Rev.1 & 2,
- PH150 Rev.1 & 2,
- PH202 Rev.1,
- PH450 Rev.1 & 2,
- SC150 Rev.1 & 2,
- SC202 Rev.1,
- SC450Rev.1 & 2,
- ZR202 Rev.1, and
- ZR402 Rev.1.
The vulnerability causes a buffer overflow in the HART Device DTM crashing the Field Device Tool (FDT) Frame Application. The Frame Application must then be restarted. The Frame Application is primarily used for remote configuration. Exploitation of this vulnerability does not result in loss of information, control, or view by the control system of the HART devices on the 4-20mA HART Loop.
Impact to individual organizations depends on many factors that are unique to each organization. NCCIC/ICS-CERT recommends that organizations evaluate the impact of this vulnerability based on their operational environment, architecture, and product implementation.
Yokogawa is a company based in Japan that maintains offices in several countries around the world, including the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, South Asia, and East Asia.
The affected product is the DTM library used by Yokogawa HART-based field devices in the FDT/DTM Frame Application. According to Yokogawa, these products are deployed across multiple critical infrastructure sectors. Yokogawa estimates that these products are used worldwide.
Successful injection of specially crafted packets to the Device DTM causes a buffer overflow condition in the Frame Application. The FDT Frame Application becomes unresponsive, and the Device DTM stops functioning.
This exploit on the FDT/DTM Frame Application is possible from any adjacent network that receives or passes packets from the HART Device DTM.
EXISTENCE OF EXPLOIT
No known public exploits specifically target this vulnerability.
This is a complex vulnerability. Crafting a working exploit for this vulnerability would be difficult. Compromised access that allows access to the packets transmitted to Frame Application is required for exploitation. This exploit also requires a specific timing to crash the Frame Application. This increases the difficulty of a successful exploit.
Yokogawa has released an advisory (YSAR-15-0001) to address this issue. It can be found at the following location:
Please contact your local Yokogawa office to obtain the latest version to mitigate this vulnerability. There are offices worldwide; North American office contact information is listed on the following web site:
JPCERT has also released an advisory (JVNVU # 96347573) to disclose this information. It can be found in the following location:
ICS-CERT encourages asset owners to take additional defensive measures to protect against this and other cybersecurity risks.
- Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems, and ensure that they are not accessible from the Internet.
- Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and isolate them from the business network.
- When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), recognizing that VPNs may have vulnerabilities and should be updated to the most current version available. Also recognize that VPN is only as secure as the connected devices.
ICS-CERT also provides a section for control systems security recommended practices on the ICS-CERT web page at: http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/content/recommended-practices. Several recommended practices are available for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies. ICS-CERT reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.
Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available in the ICS‑CERT Technical Information Paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B--Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies, that is available for download from the ICS-CERT web site (http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/).
Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their established internal procedures and report their findings to ICS-CERT for tracking and correlation against other incidents.
- a. CWE-120: Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow'), http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/120.html, web site last accessed February 17, 2015.
- b. CWE-20: Improper Input Validation, http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/20.html, web site last accessed February 17, 2015.
- c. NVD, http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2014-9191, web site last accessed February 17, 2015.
- d. CVSS Calculator, http://nvd.nist.gov/cvss.cfm?version=2&vector=AV:A/AC:H/Au:N/C:N/I:N/A:P, web site last accessed February 17, 2015.
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