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Advisory (ICSA-14-007-01A)

Sierra Wireless AirLink Raven X EV-DO Vulnerabilities (Update A)

Original release date: January 14, 2014 | Last revised: January 16, 2014

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OVERVIEW

This updated advisory is a follow-up to the advisory titled ICSA-14-007-01 Sierra Wireless AirLink Raven X EV-DO Vulnerabilities that was published January 7, 2014, on the NCCIC/ICS‑CERT Web site.

A Researcher at Cimation has identified multiple vulnerabilities in the Sierra Wireless AirLink Raven X EV-DO application. Sierra Wireless has discontinued the AirLink Raven X EV-DO and recommends that customers use GX400, GX440, or LS300 as replacements that mitigate these vulnerabilities.

These vulnerabilities could be exploited remotely.

AFFECTED PRODUCTS

The following Sierra Wireless versions are affected:

  • AirLink Raven X EV-DO Versions V4221_4.0.11.003 and V4228_4.0.11.003

IMPACT

These vulnerabilities allow an attacker to remotely reprogram the firmware on the device. After reprogramming the firmware, an attacker can affect functionality of the application, including system shutdown.

Impact to individual organizations depends on many factors that are unique to each organization. NCCIC/ICS-CERT recommends that organizations evaluate the impact of these vulnerabilities based on their operational environment, architecture, and product implementation.

BACKGROUND

Sierra Wireless is a Canadian company that maintains offices in several countries around the world, including the United States, France, and China.

The affected product, AirLink Raven X EV-DO, is a gateway that provides connectivity to industrial, enterprise, and transportation organizations around the world. According to Sierra Wireless, AirLink Raven X EV-DO is deployed across the energy and transportation systems sectors. Sierra Wireless estimates that these products are used primarily in Canada, the United States, and Europe.

VULNERABILITY CHARACTERIZATION

VULNERABILITY OVERVIEW

MISSING ENCRYPTION OF SENSITIVE DATAa

The AirLink Raven X EV-DO does not use encryption in the update and reprogramming process. By using the passwords and user names that are stored in plain text, an attacker could reprogram the firmware. This could allow the attacker to affect the availability of the firmware.

CVE-2013-2819b has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v2 base score of 9.3 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:M/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C).c

AUTHENTICATION BYPASS BY CAPTURE-REPLAYd

The AirLink Raven X EV-DO is vulnerable to replay attacks that bypass authentication. By sending a series of crafted packets to Port 17336/UDP and Port 17388/UDP, an attacker could reprogram the device’s firmware image. This could allow the attacker to affect the availability of the firmware.

CVE-2013-2820e has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v2 base score of 10.0 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C).f

VULNERABILITY DETAILS

EXPLOITABILITY

These vulnerabilities could be exploited remotely.

EXISTENCE OF EXPLOIT

No known public exploits specifically target these vulnerabilities.

DIFFICULTY

An attacker with a low skill would be able to exploit these vulnerabilities.

MITIGATION

--------- Begin Update A Part 1 of 1 --------

Sierra Wireless has discontinued the AirLink Raven X EV-DO and has provided mitigation suggestions in the following document:

Sierra Wireless vulnerabilities mitigations suggestions

--------- End Update A Part 1 of 1 ----------

Additional information and downloads can be found at:

http://www.sierrawireless.com/Support.aspx

NCCIC/ICS-CERT encourages asset owners to take additional defensive measures to protect against this and other cybersecurity risks.

  • Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems, and ensure that they are not accessible from the Internet.
  • Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and isolate them from the business network.
  • When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), recognizing that VPN is only as secure as the connected devices.

NCCIC/ICS-CERT also provides a section for control systems security recommended practices on the NCCIC/ICS-CERT Web page at: http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/content/recommended-practices. Several recommended practices are available for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies. NCCIC/ICS-CERT reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.

Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available in the NCCIC/ICS-CERT Technical Information Paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B—Targeted Cyber Intrusion Mitigation Strategies, that is available for download from the NCCIC/ICS-CERT Web site (http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/).

Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their established internal procedures and report their findings to NCCIC/ICS-CERT for tracking and correlation against other incidents.


Contact Information

For any questions related to this report, please contact ICS-CERT at:

Email: ics-cert@hq.dhs.gov
Toll Free: 1-877-776-7585
International Callers: (208) 526-0900

For industrial control systems security information and incident reporting: http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov

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